Anal lesions: the main symptoms and most frequent pathologies

Dr. Jiménez Escovar is a reference in General Surgery and Coloproctology. He has extensive experience in prestigious hospitals. His training includes a doctorate in Medicine and several specialization degrees, such as the European fellow in Coloproctology or specialization in Clinical Microbiology.

What are the most frequent anal pathologies?

Among all anal alterations, the most common are: hemorrhoidal pathology, anal fissure, abscess and anal fistula as well as pilonidal sinus. However, many other lesions can also affect this area such as different dermatological diseases, sexually transmitted diseases and even cancer.

What symptoms do they cause?

The symptoms are very different and depend on the lesion that causes them. If we talk about hemorrhoidal pathology, the most frequent symptoms are: bleeding, itching, pain and anal staining. Anal pain is related to other pathologies such as anal fissure and abscess. In the case of infections, in addition to pain, inflammation and pus discharge may appear. Anal itching is another of the most frequent symptoms in different anal diseases and requires a detailed study.

Why is it essential to get in the hands of a specialist?

Since anal pathologies are very diverse, it is important to be evaluated by a coloproctologist or colorectal surgeon. Symptoms are often not very revealing and require specific diagnostic studies for each case. In addition, minor symptoms may hide major pathologies such as cancer. Only a correct clinical history, examination and diagnostic approach can lead to an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

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What treatment do they require?

Since there are many types of anal diseases, no single treatment can be indicated for all of them. After making an accurate diagnosis, the specific treatment needed by the patient will be indicated. In the case of hemorrhoids, the initial treatment is conservative and according to the evolution or severity of the symptoms, another type of instrumental or surgical treatment may be indicated. Anal fissure is also initially treated medically but sometimes requires surgery. Abscess and anal fistula are pathologies that require mainly surgical treatment. In any case it is important to be evaluated by a specialist to individualize the treatment to be followed.