What are the different types of hand problems?

The functional hand is paramount to a person’s autonomy. It is also the organ that contains the only sense outside the head, touch. Its nerve endings called “pulpejos”, commonly misnamed fingertips, are an extension of the sense of sight in the brain.

Throughout the various anthropological studies of the evolution of the human species elaborated, the Thumb takes special relevance with its four muscles, especially the opponent. This end of the hand has the ability to oppose the rest of the fingers, in addition we can perform a digit-digital gripper, thanks to which we can, among other actions, draw, write or pick up items. These features distinguish us from other hominids.

The hand as part of the human body can be the seat of all types of injuries, which are divided into:

  • Congenital lesions
  • Tumor lesions
  • Acquired lesions:
    • Traumatic
    • Degenerative

Congenital lesions of the hand

The frequency of congenital lesions in the hand is currently very low, but at one time, due to the drug thalidomide, congenital lesions not only of the hand but also of the upper limb were very frequent and very disabling.

Classifying congenital disorders is quite complex since specialists can be guided by vascular and nervous malformations, among other pathologies. Even so, we could structure the alterations in a simple way:

  • Absence of parts, i.e., one or all fingers, or part of the carpal bones may be missing. This can have different degrees from the absence of a phalanx to the absence of the whole hand.
  • Polydactyly, that is, being born with six fingers, often with a double thumb or a supernumerary fifth finger. The extreme case is the “mirror hand” emerging up to ten fingers.
  • Syndactyly, i.e. two or more fingers may be fused. This fusion can be simple, membranous, complex bony or tendinous.
  • Amniotic Bridle Syndrome, i.e., constrictions occur around the fingers or wrist.
  • Radial or ulnar club hand, it is produced by the lack of the ulna or radius causing a malformation of the lateral forearm and the radius and thumb part of the hand.
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Tumor lesions of the hand

Regarding the tumor lesions each one of the anatomical elements that the hand has can degenerate in a neoplasm, in this way can be presented:

  • Skin cancers such as carcinomas, basocellular, spinocellular, melanomas etc. since the hand is a highly exposed area.
  • Bone cancers such as enchondromas, chondrosarcomas, etc.
  • Nerve cancers such as neurolinomas.