How is an in vitro fertilization performed?

In Vitro Fertilization is the union of the egg with the sperm in the laboratory, in order to obtain embryos to be transferred to the mother’s uterus.

In the IVF treatments, the woman’s ovaries are stimulated to obtain an optimal number of eggs, which are extracted vaginally and with ultrasound control, to be fertilized in the laboratory, by means of:

  • Conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF), the egg and sperm unite spontaneously in the laboratory.
  • Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), fertilization is performed by injecting a sperm into each oocyte. This has been a breakthrough in the treatment of fertility problems of male origin. It is also the most widely used technique.

The fertilized oocytes are observed to evaluate their evolution and choose the best quality pre-embryo(s) and transfer them to the woman’s uterus, a simple and painless process. There is the option of cryopreserving the remaining good quality pre-embryos.

Ideal patient for IVF

IVF is recommended in the following situations:

  • Absence, obstruction or injury of the tubes.
  • Sperm unsuitable for other techniques
  • Moderate or severe endometriosis
  • Ovulation disturbances
  • Failure of other treatments
  • Advanced age
  • Need for preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

The probability of success of an IVF-ET cycle depends on:

  • The patient’s age
  • The cause of infertility
  • The number of oocytes obtained and the number of final embryos of good quality.

According to the Spanish Fertility Society in 2017 the IVF/ICSI registry referred pregnancy rates of:

  • 24.2% per cycle initiated
  • 28.3% per puncture
  • 35.5% per transfer