What is immunomodulation?
Immunomodulation is the targeted manipulation of the immune system through active immunization, producing an interaction that stimulates or inhibits the immune response to restore the lost balance of the immune system due to different causes.
Immunomodulators are biological substances or defined chemical compounds used with satisfaction for the prevention and treatment of viral and bacterial diseases resulting from immunodeficiency, when treatments such as radio or chemotherapy break the balance of the immune system.
There are three types of immunomodulators, according to their action: those that act on the normal immune system, on the immunosuppressed system and those that act on both.
Why is immunomodulation performed?
Immunostimulatory agents are able to enhance defense mechanisms to protect against infections. Their main objective lies in their mode of action, by stimulating the immunological effects of the patient. This type of treatment is very useful to have the ability to increase or decrease the immune response working as adjuvant therapy in neoplastic, allergic or immunodeficient diseases.
What does immunomodulation consist of?
Immunomodulation can be produced by direct or indirect mechanisms. Direct mechanisms involve the interaction of an immunomodulator and/or its metabolite with a component of the immune system cells. Thus, the modulatory stimulus induces a modification directly in the functions of the cells of the immune system. The indirect ones, on the other hand, the immunomodulator interacts with a component that does not belong to the effector cells of the immune system.
These interactions stimulate or inhibit the release of a direct mechanism, measurable both in vivo and in vitro, or indirectly measurable only in vivo.
Many of the mechanisms of action of immunomodulators are based on the alteration they produce in the activity of immune cells, such as changes in gene expression, messenger RNA processing, intracellular transport of proteins, protein synthesis and the secretion and expression of proteins on the cell surface, which produce cellular changes that can influence the induction, maintenance and regulation of the immune response.
Preparation for immunomodulation
No prior intervention is needed, since its application is usually through the administration of drugs that help activate, reinforce or restore normal immune function. Therefore, they are administered orally, although they can also be administered intravenously or subcutaneously in isolation or in combination with others.
Treatment is usually administered orally with drugs that help to activate, reinforce or restore normal immune function.
help to activate, reinforce or restore normal immune function.
Aftercare after surgery
No specific aftercare is necessary.