Prostate cancer is known as cancer that develops in the glandular organ responsible for making semen. The cancer appears when some prostate cells mutate and begin to multiply uncontrollably. These cells can also spread to other parts of the body, especially the bones and lymph nodes, thus causing metastasis.
Symptoms of prostate cancer
Nowadays prostate cancer is usually detected at an early stage, so the patient does not yet show symptoms. Symptoms that may appear are pain, difficult urination and erectile dysfunction, among others.
The most frequent age of onset is in men over 50 years of age. Prostate cancer is the third most common type of cancer in men and, in Spain, approximately 6,000 men die each year from it.
Prostate cancer, risk factors
- being African-American
- living in northwestern European countries
- having Lynch DS or having any BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation
- having a first-degree relative affected by prostate cancer
Early detection of prostate cancer
Early detection of prostate cancer is mainly carried out by testing the blood for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and by digital rectal examination. If the results are altered, a prostate biopsy is performed.
On the other hand, Multiparametric Prostate Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is a technique increasingly used in the diagnosis and follow-up of prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer survival in Spain is equal to the European average. Approximately 65.5% of prostate cancer patients in our country survive more than 5 years.
Treatment of prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is treated by radical surgery or radiotherapy in cases where the tumor is localized and the patient has a life expectancy of more than 10 years. To decide which is the best treatment, the Urology specialist bases his decision on:
- Stage of the disease
- Aggressiveness of the cancerous cells (Gleason score).
- PSA levels at the time of diagnosis
- Age and statistical life expectancy independent of prostate cancer
- Patient preferences
If the tumor is disseminated the treatment to be done is hormonal treatment with the aim of slowing down tumor growth and, if it does not respond to this, treatment with chemotherapy or second-line hormonal treatment can be done.