Palpebral ptosis is the drooping of the upper eyelid due to a malfunction of the muscle that elevates the eyelid, called the levator of the upper eyelid. This pathology can be congenital or acquired and can occur unilaterally or bilaterally.
Difference between congenital ptosis and acquired ptosis
Congenital ptosis is usually caused by congenital hypoplasia of the muscle that lifts the eyelid or by paralysis of this same muscle.
On the other hand, acquired ptosis is due to multiple causes, one of the most frequent is the disinsertion of the levator aponeurosis, which normally occurs in older people as a consequence of the aging of the structures in the area. In addition, it can be a consequence of muscular diseases such as myasthenia gravis (myogenic ptosis) or paralysis of the third cranial nerve (neurological ptosis) accompanied, in this case, by strabismus.
Palpebral ptosis produces an aesthetic as well as a functional defect, depending on whether the eyelid covers the pupil or not. For this reason, in cases of congenital ptosis, surgery is necessary, because if it is not solved quickly, severe amblyopia may occur.
What is the treatment for ptosis?
The treatment for this pathology is surgical, and the technique depends on the degree of functioning of the levator muscle. If the muscle does not work, the technique of choice will be frontalis suspension and in cases where it does work, a resection of the muscle can be performed. When the cause is disinsertion of the aponeurosis, the aponeurosis must be replaced.