Periodontitis or pyorrhea is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by bacteria in dental plaque that destroys the tissues surrounding the teeth. Periodontal pockets are produced where bacteria accumulate. This infectious process produces the loss of the supporting tissues of the teeth such as periodontal ligament, which holds the tooth to the bone and the destruction of the bone and gum. There are two forms of periodontitis, a chronic one that evolves slowly and an aggressive one, which destroys the tissues very quickly.
Symptoms of periodontitis
Spontaneous or provoked bleeding, in the case of smokers it is masked by decreasing a lot. Suppuration, pus coming out of the gum, an unmistakable sign of infection. Bad taste and odor in the mouth, tooth mobility, tooth migration, packing of food between the teeth and tooth loss.
Diagnosis of periodontitis
The diagnosis is simple, it is done by introducing a periodontal probe between the gum and the tooth, a painless test. This establishes whether there is loss of insertion and the severity. Once the periodontitis has been diagnosed, we can use microbiological tests, with DNA probes, which will indicate the bacteria and the aggressiveness of the periodontal disease. It also indicates the type of antibiotic to which these bacteria and antiseptics are sensitive.
Treatment of periodontitis
Depending on the severity of the disease we can perform a basic treatment, non-surgical, consisting of cleaning the roots of the teeth of subgingival calculus with local anesthesia in mild and moderate cases, and in advanced cases, where there are deep pockets, surgical treatment is performed to clean the roots in depth. In some cases, defects caused by periodontal disease can be regenerated. In all these cases, the patient should be instructed in oral hygiene techniques.
Prevention is done with proper oral hygiene and control of your gums by the periodontist. The frequency of check-ups depends on the severity of the periodontitis.