Palpebral malpositions

Index

1. What are palpebral malposition?

2. Symptoms of palpebral malpositions

3. Causes of palpebral malpositions

4. Treatments for palpebral malpositions

5. Prevention

What are palpebral malpositions?

Palpebral malpositions are alterations in the position of the eyelids. These dysfunctions can cause visual and ocular problems that could become serious, in addition to the unsightly image they produce. It is a relatively common pathology. The most frequent malpositions are:

  • Palpebral retraction: abnormally high position of the upper eyelid or abnormally low position of the lower eyelid.
  • Ptosis: drooping of the upper eyelid.
  • Entropion: the eyelid rotates inward causing the eyelashes to rub against the cornea.
  • Ectropion: rotation or turning outward of the lower eyelid.

They usually occur in middle and old age, but sometimes appear in young people or are congenital in nature.

Symptoms of palpebral malpositions

The patient may present different symptoms, depending on the type of palpebral malposition. The most common is ptosis or drooping of the upper eyelid, which can cause a decrease in the visual field.

Ectropion may cause irritation, tearing, gritty sensation and redness. This is due to poor tear distribution on the cornea because the inner part of the eye is exposed.

Finally, the symptoms of entropion are corneal irritation or tearing due to the eyelashes rubbing against the cornea. In some cases, crusting of the eyelid and mucous discharge may also occur.

Palpebral malpositions are
abnormal positions of the eyelids.

See also  Oncologic Urology

Causes of palpebral malpositions

There are multiple causes that can originate these dysfunctions, among which we find:

  • Human aging (the most frequent reason)
  • Trauma
  • Some types of surgeries
  • Scars
  • Paralysis of the facial nerve (Bell’s palsy).
  • Genetics

The specialist will perform a thorough review of both the ophthalmologic condition and general condition to evaluate:

  • Visual ability and acuity
  • Retina and optic nerve
  • Inferior palpebral laxity
  • Retractor insufficiency

Treatments for palpebral malpositions

Eyelid malpositions have a surgical treatment, depending on the severity. These surgeries consist of anatomically and functionally repositioning or reconstructing the eyelid, although the patient’s aesthetics are also improved.

In case the patient suffers from ptosis, surgery is performed on the levator muscle of the upper eyelid to correct the correct eyelid height. On the other hand, if the patient has an entropion or ectropion, his or her history should be consulted to see if he or she has had previous surgery and to choose the best alternative for reconstructing the affected eyelid layer.

In most cases, the interventions offer an immediate solution and are performed under local anesthesia and on an outpatient basis. The most common cosmetic eyelid surgery is blepharoplasty, which corrects excess skin and eyelid bags.

Prevention

Unfortunately, there is no preventive measure for this kind of pathology. The most important thing is to see a specialist as soon as possible to receive an early diagnosis. This diagnosis will avoid aggravating the situation and will allow the most appropriate treatment to be implemented.