There are certain urological pathologies more prevalent according to the age of the patient and from a socio-economic point of view, where several segmentations can be made: medium, high and very high.
Thus, there are three main pathologies that can affect many men at different times of life: prostate cancer, renal lithiasis and bladder cancer. Dr. Pérez-Lanzac, a specialist in Urology, explains their prevalence and the factors that can influence them.
Prostate cancer, the second most diagnosed cancer in men
Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in men, and accounts for 15% of all tumors. Ninety percent of prostate cancers are diagnosed in men over the age of 65.
In the case of risk factors, such as family history, prevention begins at 45 years of age and, of necessity, at 50 years of age. Risk factors include:
- Family history with a parent, sibling or grandparent who has had prostate cancer.
- Metabolic syndrome: hypertension or increased waist circumference.
- Obesity, associated with high-risk prostate cancer.
It is beneficial to have a PSA before the age of 40 years of reference and that it is below 1ng/dL.
However, there are some factors considered “protective” of prostate cancer that can minimize the risk of suffering it, such as the intake of tomato (lycopene) or soy (phytoestrogens).
Renal lithiasis, more common in men, with high recurrence rates
Urinary lithiasis is a common disease. The estimated incidence in Europe and developed countries is 0.5-1%, with a prevalence of 5-10%. In Spain, according to the study carried out by the urolithiasis group of the Spanish Urology Association (AEU) in 1984, the annual incidence was 0.27%, with a prevalence of 4.16% (prevalence in 4.8% of men versus 3.8% in women), with a peak of maximum frequency between the third and fifth decade of life.
In the case of urinary lithiasis, a high recurrence rate is usually observed: 50% at 5 years, 60% at 8 years and up to 70% in longer periods of time.
There are a number of factors involved in the epidemiology of urolithiasis, including:
Intrinsic factors, which can be:
- Genetic: cystinuria, renal tubular acidosis, primary hyperoxaluria.
- Race, being a more common pathology in Eurasian and Caucasian patients.
- Sex, being more frequent in males than in females.
- Age, especially in adults older than 40 years.
- Environmental, being more common during the hot months.
- Geographical, being more frequent in tropical regions.
- Dietary, influenced by the intake of animal proteins and/or calcium restriction in the diet.
- Socioeconomic, being more frequent in middle social classes and in people who develop sedentary professions.
Bladder cancer, 5 times more frequent in men than in women.
Bladder cancer is the seventh most frequent cancer in the male population. It affects more men than women, with an incidence in Europe almost 5 times higher. It is a type of cancer that usually occurs in people over 55 years of age, with the peak age being 73 years.
Risk factors include:
- Patients who smoke or have a history of smoking.
- Exposure to tobacco.
- Exposure to hydrocarbons, aromatic amines (chemical and petrochemical).
- Genetic predisposition.
- Family history.