Types of retinal detachment

Retinal detachment occurs when the retina, which is a light-sensitive membrane, separates from its supporting layers. Ophthalmology specialists state that these layers are in contact but not adhered, so situations can occur that cause the retina to separate from this support, which is known as the pigmented epithelium layer.

When a retinal detachment occurs, the retina deteriorates and degenerates, because the pigmented epithelium is the tissue responsible for feeding, providing oxygen and taking care of the retina. If retinal detachment occurs, these actions are not carried out and, as a consequence, the retina loses its function of perceiving the light that is focused from the outside. This causes a progressive loss of vision which, if not treated in time, can lead to blindness.

Types of retinal detachment

The most common retinal detachment is rhegmatonic detachment, which is when fluid leaks from the vitreous cavity into the virtual subretinal space through a retinal tear. Another type of detachment is tractional. This occurs due to traction toward the center of the eye by membranes and fibrotic proliferations that are attached to the retina, as occurs in people with advanced diabetes. Finally, the serous type is caused by exudation of fluid between the two layers due to inflammation, tumors or various other reasons.

Treatment for retinal detachment

Retinal detachment of the rhegmatogenous or tractional type is treated by surgery. These types of detachment are the ones that occur in most cases. Serous retinal detachment requires treatment of its originating cause, which may be by surgery, medication or radiotherapy, among others.

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There are different types of surgery that are performed according to each case, although currently the most commonly used technique is microsurgery by posterior vitrectomy via pars plana.