In many cases of obesity, medical treatment is not enough to reverse the problem and can have serious consequences for the patient’s health such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Specialists in General Surgery recommend the laparoscopic technique for a faster postoperative recovery.
Types of obesity surgery
Surgical techniques are indicated mainly for cases of severe or morbid obesity. The most recommended types of surgery are those performed by laparoscopy, which can be divided into three main fields:
- Restrictive surgery: this technique consists of the well-known stomach reduction. By reducing the capacity of the stomach, the patient feels full by eating small amounts.
- Malabsorptive surgery: instead, this procedure is based on influencing the digestion and absorption of food. This means that food is diverted in such a way that the amount ingested is the same, but its absorption of fats or glucose is less.
- Mixed surgery: the combination of the two previous ones, in which gastric capacity is reduced and food malabsorption also occurs.
The choice of technique varies according to the characteristics of each patient, depending on factors such as the type of obesity, age and underlying pathologies of the individual.
Diet and obesity surgery
Before surgery, the patient is not usually prescribed a diet, although it is recommended to lose some weight, as this facilitates the surgery.
After the operation for obesity, a multidisciplinary team formed by surgeons, endocrinologists and dieticians advise the patient and prepare a progressive diet adapted to the recovery depending on each case and each surgical technique.
Postoperative period after laparoscopic surgery
The approximate hospital stay for laparoscopic surgery is 48 hours on average. Once discharged from the hospital, the patient must follow certain dietary guidelines and lead a normal life, except for important physical efforts during the first month.
Subsequently, the patient will be followed up for two years by a multidisciplinary team of surgeons, endocrinologists and nutritionists.
Results after the operation for obesity
The objective in the treatment of obesity is to reduce excess body mass, that is to say, the weight that exceeds the ideal index, between 60 and 70%, which is accepted as a satisfactory result for this type of treatment. This objective is consolidated over a period of two years.
In the case of metabolic surgery, indicated for type II diabetic patients with associated obesity, they respond in 80% that after the operation they will no longer require insulin or will significantly reduce the doses, with a correct control of blood glucose levels. In other pathologies associated with obesity, such as arterial hypertension, between 50 and 70% of patients respond favorably to treatment.