Psychotic disorders


Type: Illness

What are psychotic disorders?

Psychotic disorders are serious mental disorders characterized by a global alteration of the personality that causes sufferers to have abnormal, distorted ideas and perceptions of reality.

The most common disorders and their main symptoms are:

  • Schizophrenia: a chronic, degenerative disease that causes delusions, hallucinations and motor symptoms, such as compulsive agitation of the body.
  • Delusional disorders: the delirium usually focuses only on one specific aspect, e.g. jealousy.
  • Brief psychotic disorder: this is usually triggered by a specific cause, e.g. a stressful situation. Therefore, it usually lasts only a few days and disappears without any after-effects. Generally, people with this type of disorder suffer psychotic outbreaks, that is, acute episodes of delusions and hallucinations.

What symptoms do they present?

The two main symptoms presented by patients with psychotic disorders are:

  • Delusions: illogical thoughts and false beliefs, such as that someone is persecuting them or is against them.
  • Hallucinations: false and unrealistic perceptions, such as seeing or hearing things that do not exist.

Causes of psychotic disorders or why they occur

The causes can be varied:

  • Consumption of substances such as alcohol and drugs.
  • Brain tumors or cysts
  • Some drugs
  • Stroke

Can they be prevented?

Prevention of psychotic disorders depends on the cause. If the cause is the use of certain substances or drugs, psychotic disorders can be prevented by avoiding them.

What is the treatment?

Treatment depends on the cause of the psychosis. Treatment mainly includes psychotherapy. In very severe cases hospitalization may be required when the person may be dangerous to self or others.