Nasal endoscopic surgery is a technique of the branch of rhinology, a subspecialty of otorhinolaryngology, the discipline that treats nasal and sinus conditions.
The main pathologies affecting the nose are:
1. Septal deviation
These are alterations in the development of the nasal septum or septum, that is, the structure that separates the two nostrils. It can also cause breathing difficulties in the case of suffering any trauma. Although septal deviation is very common among the population, it does not usually present symptoms. Its treatment requires surgery, but it is only performed in cases in which it does not allow proper breathing.
Rhinitis refers to the inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal passages, either chronic or acute, which may have been produced by causes of the following typologies:
On the other hand, the symptomatological picture is very heterogeneous, since it includes very varied symptoms. It would be characterized by:
- Nasal congestion or obstruction.
- Ocular signs
- Pharyngeal manifestations
- Otic symptoms
This is an inflammatory disease that affects not only the nasal passages, but also at least one of the paranasal sinuses. It tends to be related to nasosinusal polyposis. It can originate for various reasons:
- Mucociliary disorders.
- Infectious processes.
- Allergic conditions.
- Inflammatory states of the mucosa.
- Obstructions produced by morphological variations.
- Blockages due to anatomical alterations of the nasal cavity.
- Occlusions caused by malformations of the paranasal sinuses.
The treatment of this disorder is usually pharmacological, and only in some occasions, surgical, by means of endoscopic nasosinusal surgery. This intervention is performed without incisions, since it is performed through the nostrils. Finally, in certain cases in which this technique does not solve the problem, more aggressive surgery will be required.
4. Pathology of the lacrimal duct
Both lacrimal duct obstruction with chronic lacrimation and chronic dacryocystitis can be treated by nasal endoscopy. This can be performed with the classic techniques of endonasal osteotomies, or laser-assisted. To treat this pathology requires the otolaryngologist to work in coordination with the ophthalmologist, both in the initial assessment, as well as in the intervention and postoperative period.