Gynecologic cancer is cancer that affects the female genital tract. The most frequent are: ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer and vulvar cancer. Cases of the uterine tube and vagina can be considered more exceptional.
Of these, the only one that can be prevented is cervical cancer, which is caused by the human papilloma virus, which is transmitted by sexual intercourse and for which there are very effective vaccines that, if given to the entire population, both women and men, before having sexual relations, would prevent cancer from occurring.
In this sector, many new developments have been made in its diagnosis. In the case of ovarian cancer or endometrial cancer, transvaginal ultrasound and 3D and 4D ultrasound have proved decisive in the early diagnosis of these tumors, while in cervical and vulvar cancer, detection of the human papilloma virus, cytology and colposcopy are the main diagnostic tools available to us.
Symptoms and treatments
The three major symptoms in gynecology are leucorrhea, which is an increase in normal vaginal discharge, pain, located in the abdomen or external genitalia, and vaginal bleeding. Any of these symptoms is cause for a visit to the gynecologist for evaluation and investigation through tests, of the possible causes of these symptoms.
Check-ups are essential for the detection of gynecological diseases. In terms of frequency, the best would be one a year from the beginning of sexual relations, in order to inform about the risks of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and unwanted pregnancies and to perform the appropriate diagnostic tests for early diagnosis of the tumor.
Once the cancer has been diagnosed, its treatment is primarily surgical, although in most cases it must be complemented with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and occasionally hormone therapy.