Colorectal surgery and laparoscopy

This surgery can be performed by laparoscopy in most cases, always by teams with great experience in the specialty of general surgery. The diseases that most frequently require surgical intervention are:

Colon and rectal cancer (CRC).

It is one of the most frequent cancers and when it is not yet very advanced it has a cure rate of over 90% with proper treatment. Early diagnosis is essential by performing a colonoscopy after the age of 50 or earlier in patients with a high familial risk. The treatment will be surgical intervention, although in some patients treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy is indicated before the intervention. This consists of the removal of the affected part of the colon or rectum including the lymph nodes in the area.

Colon diverticula (diverticulosis and diverticulitis)

These are small pouches that form in the colon by protrusion of the deeper layers through the muscular layer. They are usually asymptomatic but may present complications that require treatment: Hemorrhage is rare and only in a few cases requires surgical treatment. Diverticulitis is infection of the diverticulum and surrounding fat. They generally respond well to intravenous antibiotic treatment but sometimes require intervention. After an episode of diverticulitis, a colonoscopy should always be performed to rule out the existence of other pathologies such as colon tumors.

Colonic polyposis

This is a rare condition characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in the colon generally associated with a familial syndrome due to genetic mutations. When isolated polyps are present they can be removed by endoscopy but in cases of polyposis this is not possible. These are premalignant lesions and these patients will develop colon cancer at some point if they are not operated on.

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For surgical treatment it is necessary to act on the rectum and sigma, sometimes requiring resection of a segment of the rectum and union or anastomosis of the ends.

Rectal prolapse

This is the exit of part of the rectum through the anus with defecation, with pain and bleeding due to ulceration. It is usually associated with a certain degree of gas and stool incontinence. It requires surgical intervention.