Artificial insemination is an Assisted Reproduction technique based on depositing the spermatozoa from the semen sample previously prepared in the woman’s uterus, with the objective of increasing the potential of the spermatozoa and, therefore, the possibilities of fertilization in the egg.
Who can be a donor in artificial insemination?
Artificial insemination can be performed using:
- Sperm from the pregnant woman’s partner (Conjugal Artificial Insemination or CAI). Sperm are deposited in the woman’s uterus, normally with the intention of bringing them closer to the egg, which will be fertilized in the fallopian tube. CAI is usually performed after ovarian stimulation of the patient. It is a technique to be used when there is a decrease in the number or mobility of spermatozoa or abnormalities in them. Also when there is difficulty in the penetration of the spermatozoa in the uterus, for unknown causes of infertility or sterility or other reasons. According to the registry of the Spanish Fertility Society in 2014, the pregnancy rate is 13% for each cycle performed.
- Donor sperm, by going to authorized sperm banks (Artificial Insemination with Donor Sperm or AID). The process is the same as the previous one, with the difference that the sperm comes from a duly accredited sperm bank. It is a technique used in heterosexual couples where the male has some important seminal affectation. Also in male causes not resolved with in vitro fertilization/ICSI, in some chromosomal/genetic alterations or if there is a risk of transmission of any pathology. Finally, in women with gestational desire but without a partner. In the 2014 Spanish Fertility Society registry the pregnancy rate is 20.3% per cycle.