The most common problems in the specialty of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery are those related to pathologies of the oral cavity and facial structure.
Frequent applications of oral surgery
Many common maxillofacial problems are those treated with oral surgery, such as dentoalveolar disease requiring dental inclusions, bone regeneration of the alveolar bone of the maxilla and mandible for placement of dental implants, and surgical treatment of partial or complete edentulism.
Oral medicine consultations are also frequent, which include lesions of the mucous membranes of the mouth such as oral cavity cancer; as well as benign pathology of the salivary glands which are the sublingual gland, submaxillary, parotid and minor salivary glands, and the pathology of the temporomandibular joint.
Most common problems in maxillofacial surgery
In the field of maxillofacial surgery there are frequent consultations about dentofacial anomalies and dental occlusion. This pathology refers to the lack of harmony between the maxilla and the mandible and causes problems known as prognathism, pseudoprognathism or hypoplasia of the upper jaw, as well as asymmetries between the jaws and excess or deficit in the projection of the chin. Symptoms of maxillofacial problems The symptomatology of oral surgery problems include inflammation due to alterations in dental eruption, as well as functional problems due to the absence of teeth and temporomandibular joint.
Dentofacial anomalies cause aesthetic problems in the facial structure, such as mandibular prognathism due to an overly large mandible, a deficit in the projection of the lip, nose and midface due to a small maxilla, as well as occlusal problems such as open bite due to the lack of contact between the teeth of the anterior front of the maxilla and the mandible.
It is also common to see asymmetries in the shape of the chin and jaw that can be treated by maxillofacial surgery.
Surgical treatment of maxillofacial problems
The usual management of maxillofacial problems is surgical. Oral surgery can be a simple, quick and painless procedure such as dental implant surgery and dentoalveolar surgery. These can be performed under intravenous sedation in addition to local anesthesia, can be performed with greater comfort and a better postoperative period for the patient.
Today it is possible to perform virtually any oral surgery treatment with high quality, comfort and precision in the results, thanks to advances in surgery and new technologies.
In maxillofacial surgery treatments, which include dentofacial anomalies, orthognathic surgery, sequelae of facial trauma and more complex surgeries such as oral cancer, maxillofacial reconstructive surgery and temporomandibular joint problems, general anesthesia is used. These treatments usually require hospitalization.
Age to undergo oral and maxillofacial surgery.
For elective procedures, i.e. benign pathologies that do not affect the prognosis of the pathology, surgery can be performed when it presents itself or is more convenient for the patient.
In pathologies that require multidisciplinary management with orthodontic professionals, such as dentofacial anomalies, it is convenient that they are treated after growth, since in some cases they can be previously solved with orthodontics and facial orthopedics.
Orthognathic surgery treatments are recommended between 18 and 35 years of age, since the younger the patient is, the faster the recovery and the facial problems that could affect their development will be solved. However, it is not uncommon to treat patients over 35 years of age who had not considered this treatment before, either due to lack of knowledge or an inadequate previous diagnosis.
For dental rehabilitation with dental implants, these can be performed at any age once growth is complete. This pathology usually occurs in older patients who present a greater degree of edentulism. The treatment requires the participation of a dentist specialized in prosthodontics, who will be responsible for the rehabilitation with dental prosthesis on dental implants performed by the oral and maxillofacial surgeon.
Other pathologies such as dental inclusions, third molars, included canines or supernumerary teeth, should be performed before they present pathology and within a comprehensive oral health treatment plan in which the participation of the dentist and orthodontist is very important.
Non-elective pathologies such as congenital pathology, facial traumatology, cervicofacial infectious pathology or maxillofacial oncologic pathology should be managed preferentially when they occur or their diagnosis is suspected by seeing a qualified specialist in maxillofacial surgery.