The temporomandibular joint is the joint that relates the mandible to the skull, and through which the articular disc facilitates the movements of the same.
In the TMJ, constituted by ligaments, muscles, vascular and nervous irrigation, two parts are differentiated:
- Articular part of the temporal bone and upper part of the disc,
- Inferior part of the disc and the condyle of the mandible.
TMJ: most common pathologies
- Traumatic: tears, ruptures
- Inflammatory: myositis
- Degenerative, endocrine, metabolic and toxic
- Developmental: anormogenesis, hyper-hypoplasias, neoplasias
- Dislocations: discocondylar, temporodiscal
- Traumatic: osseous, capsular, discs
- Inflammatory: arthritis
- Degenerative: osteoarthritis, ankylosis
- Developmental: anormogenesis, hyper-hypoplasias, neoplasias.
Treatment of TMJ pathologies
Treatment for TMJ depends on the pathology suffered. Broadly speaking, combined therapies (physiotherapy, TENS, acupuncture, psychology, osteopathy, etc.) and myorelaxant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are usually mixed with relaxation splints or other types of splints. In addition, surgical treatment is sometimes required.
Prevention of TMJ pathologies
The best prevention is a good diagnosis in order to be able to give the most appropriate advice for each case.
Thus, for example, the habit of chewing gum, an excessive degree of stress or actions that affect the occlusion, may be some of the causes.