Bipolar Disorder


  1. What is bipolar disorder?
  2. Symptoms
  3. Causes
  4. Treatment

What is bipolar disorder?

Bipolar disorder is a mental condition in which the person has very marked or extreme mood swings.

That is to say, it is an alteration in the state of the mood that causes the person to pass from happiness to sadness in a fast and unpredictable way. It manifests itself in states of mania and, in the most severe cases, in depression.

It is a hereditary disease, although it is also influenced by the educational environment and the level of stress in which the person lives. Within the psychiatric diseases, bipolar disorder has a high prevalence, having a higher incidence in women, and presenting two age peaks in which it usually develops: at 30 and 50 years of age.

What are the symptoms?

The manic phase can last for days or months. The main symptoms are:

  • Easy distraction.
  • Little need for sleep.
  • Excessive participation in activities.
  • Poor temper control.
  • Very irritable mood, talking a lot, having hurried thoughts as well as false beliefs about oneself or one’s abilities.
  • Lack of self-control.

Bipolar disorder is a mental condition in which the person has very marked or extreme mood swings.

During the depressive period, the symptoms are:

  • Daily sadness.
  • Lack of concentration or trouble remembering or making decisions.
  • Difficulty falling asleep or feeling the need to sleep too much.
  • Loss of self-esteem.
  • Withdrawal from friends and family.
  • Fatigue and listlessness.
  • Loss of appetite or exaggerated food consumption.
  • Thoughts of death or suicide.
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Causes of bipolar disorder or why it occurs.

This disorder can affect both men and women equally, although its prevalence is higher in women. It often begins around two age peaks: around 30 and around 50 years of age, which is not to say that anyone can develop bipolar disorder at other ages.

The cause is unknown, but it is important to note that it occurs more frequently in people who have a family member with bipolar disorder.

There are factors that can trigger a manic episode:

  • Childbirth
  • Antidepressant medications
  • Insomnia
  • Consumption of psychoactive drugs

What does the treatment consist of?

It should be mentioned that the treatment of bipolar disorder is aimed at controlling and mitigating the effects and signs of the disorder. Bipolar disorder cannot be cured, but it can be treated and controlled.

The main goals of treatment are:

  • Make the episodes less frequent and less intense.
  • Facilitate daily life, both at home and at work.
  • To prevent self-harm and suicide.

The treatment of bipolar disorder begins with awareness of the problem and knowledge of it by the affected person and his family members through psychological therapies.

Pharmacological treatment is generally used during the phases of imbalance, in which benzodiazepines, antipsychotics and mood stabilizers are recommended. If the patient requires it, antidepressant drugs may also be used.