Knee Surgery

What is knee surgery?

Knee surgery is a procedure intended to treat pathologies of the knee joint. This may be due to sports injuries (e.g. meniscus or ligament injuries), malformations or degenerative diseases (e.g. osteoarthritis, chondropathy).

Why is it done?

Knee surgery is performed to treat degenerative, malformative or traumatic joint diseases. The pathology most frequently treated by surgery is osteoarthritis, which involves wear and tear of the cartilage; it also involves intra-articular structures such as the meniscus, bone and synovial tissue, causing limited range of motion and joint deformity.

What is it treated?

Knee surgery uses numerous techniques depending on the area and lesion to be treated. For the treatment of degenerative diseases, the most commonly used techniques are:

  • Arthroscopy: in the case of small cartilage lesions.
  • Osteotomy: generally performed in the case of a young patient with arthritic pathology present only in part of the joint.
  • Prosthesis implantation (total or single compartment): indicates how damaged the joint is.

As for the treatment of traumatic diseases such as meniscus or cruciate ligament injuries, the arthroscopic technique is generally used, which, thanks to its mini-invasiveness, allows a faster recovery.

In the case of severe ligament injury, it may be necessary to perform a transplant using tissue taken from the patient.

Preparing for knee surgery

Preparation for surgery may vary according to the type of surgery to be performed. Clinical analysis, instrumental examinations and the execution of exercises to improve the muscular condition of the leg are generally required.

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It is also indicated to stop taking anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs for at least 10 days before surgery.

In any case, the specialist will provide the necessary information to the patient to better prepare for the operation.

Post-surgery recovery

Recovery times and measures to be followed vary according to the type of operation performed. After hospitalization, the patient may feel pain that can be controlled by taking painkillers.