What is Coloproctology?

Coloproctology is the part of medicine that studies all diseases affecting the colon, rectum and anus. It is one of the most important specialties of medicine and surgery, and the pathologies of this region occupy 50% of the tasks of a surgical team.

It is a specialty that deals with very broad pathologies. From colon and rectal cancer to diseases of the anus (hemorrhoids, fistulas, fissures or incontinence).

What diseases does the coloproctologist treat?

The pathologies treated by the coloproctologist can be divided into those affecting the colon and rectum or those affecting the anus. Within the colon and rectum, the most important pathology is colorectal cancer. It is the most frequent cancer in the population, if men and women are combined, and it is the one that occupies most of the time of the coloproctological surgeons.

When a patient is diagnosed with colon and rectal cancer, it is important that he/she be operated by a specialist in Coloproctology. The results will depend on it, the patient will have less complications and the prognosis will be better. Until some time ago colon cancer was operated by laparatomy or open surgery. For some time now, laparoscopy has been used, which is much less invasive and involves fewer complications for the patient, a shorter hospital stay and a better recovery. Furthermore, according to some studies, the prognosis is more favorable in patients operated on laparoscopically.

See also  Abdominal pain

In addition, there are also other pathologies that affect the colon and rectum:

  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Crohn’s disease
  • Colorectal polyps
  • Colorectal endometriosis
  • Colon diverticula
  • Colon angioplasty
  • Rectocele

Inside the anus there is an important variety of pathologies. The most frequent are:

  • Hemorrhoids
  • Anal fissures
  • Anal fistulas
  • Anal incontinence and/or constipation
  • Anal itching
  • Venereal diseases of the anus
  • Anorectal abscesses and infections
  • Perianal dermatosis
  • Rectal prolapse and ulcer
  • Rectal rectal lesions

What subspecialties are there within Coloproctology?

There is no subspecialty within Coloproctology; it is a subspecialty in itself, within General and Digestive System Surgery, in charge of the pathologies of the anus and rectum. Therefore, coloproctologists are not specialists as such, but general surgeons who have super-specialized in the colon and anus. There is no specialty as such at the state level but there is at the European level.

When is it necessary to go to a coloproctologist?

You should see a specialist in Coloproctology for any symptom: Noticing a small lump or change in the anus Noticing pain or stinging Noticing a lesion in the anal area Noticing a change in bowel movements, in their appearance or in the frequency of bowel movements If there is bleeding during bowel movements