What are repeat miscarriages?
Repeat abortions or miscarriages are the loss of a pregnancy naturally during the first 20 weeks of gestation. The rate of repeat miscarriages is estimated to be around 15%, rising to 18% if the woman has had a previous miscarriage and 25-30% if she has had several previous miscarriages.
Normally the cause should be discovered with a specific study when a couple has had two or more miscarriages.
What are the symptoms?
There are certain symptoms of miscarriage that do not always translate into gestational loss. The threat of miscarriage is like a warning that it may occur.
The main and most alarming symptom is heavy vaginal bleeding. Likewise, there may also be unknown pains or uncommon discomfort of great intensity. On the other hand, symptoms that may raise suspicion of an imminent miscarriage are: abdominal pain, fever or weakness. In the event of any of the above symptoms, the pregnant woman should immediately consult her gynecologist.
Causes of repeated miscarriages or why they occur
There are different factors that can cause miscarriages to occur:
- Genetic factorsà It accounts for 5% of cases in couples, in which there is a chromosomal problem in the karyotype of one of the members, but they were unaware of it.
- Anatomical factorsà These are uterine alterations. After solving it the chances of having a child increase up to 70-85%. They include:
- Adherences that form in the uterus that sometimes occur as a result of previous scraping.
- Myomas or septa
- Endocrine factorsà Obesity, polycystic ovarian syndrome or altered levels of thyroid hormones or glucose are risk factors.
- Thrombophiliasà These are pathologies of the blood circulation that predispose the patient to thrombosis. If they occur while the placenta is forming, they can cause repeated miscarriage.
- Immunological factors à When in vitro fertilization is carried out, it is essential for the mother to have a correct immune response, because if the body reacts by rejecting the embryo instead of protecting it, a miscarriage can occur.
- Male factorà The age of the father can also be a triggering factor, especially if they are older than 45-50 years.
Can they be prevented?
In order to prevent repeated miscarriages, it is essential to closely monitor the pregnancy and the parents. Thus, weekly ultrasound monitoring from the sixth week of gestation onwards increases the probability that the pregnancy will progress correctly, reducing miscarriages. The weekly check-up will also influence the parents’ stress and fear, reducing it and making them feel more relaxed.
Therefore, the best way to prevent repeat miscarriages from occurring is by attending prenatal medical appointments, as well as helping to reduce parental stress, hence psychological support is also important.
What is the treatment?
Depending on the underlying cause of repeated miscarriages, the specialist will propose one option or another: surgical hysteroscopy, endocrine treatment (hormonal disorders), anticoagulant drugs, pre-implantation genetic study of the embryos, among other alternatives.
It is important, in any case, that a multidisciplinary team made up of endocrinologists, gynecologists, andrologists, psychologists, etc., visit the couple and recommend the best treatment options.