Ovarian cyst

What is an ovarian cyst?

An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in or on an ovary.

What are the symptoms?

Ovarian cysts do not usually cause symptoms. If symptoms do occur, some may include:

  • Abdominal distention or bloating.
  • Pain during bowel movements.
  • Pelvic pain at the beginning or end of the menstrual period.
  • Constant, dull pelvic pain.
  • Sudden, severe pelvic pain.

There are different types of ovarian cysts depending on their cause.

Causes of ovarian cyst or why it occurs.

There are different types of ovarian cysts depending on their cause. The most common are functional cysts, which are formed due to ovulation. They are divided into: follicular cysts (when the follicle does not open to release the egg) and corpus luteum cysts (if the follicle that retained the egg is sealed after releasing it).

Can it be prevented?

Hormonal medications, such as birth control pills, help prevent the formation of functional cysts because they prevent the follicles from growing.

What is the treatment?

No specific treatment is usually necessary as they produce mild symptoms that disappear on their own after six to seven weeks. Moreover, cysts are very common in women of childbearing age. They are generally benign, although they can also be malignant or cancerous. In many cases they may require treatment by appropriate ovarian cyst surgery. In benign cysts, only the diseased area of the ovary can be removed by laparoscopic surgery. For malignant cysts, however, it is usually necessary to remove the entire ovary.