Locoregional anesthesia

What is locoregional anesthesia?

It is the anesthesia that is administered in a certain area in order to numb it and eliminate pain at the time of surgery. It is administered by means of an injection with analgesic effect near the nerve root.

Which anesthetics are most commonly used?

  • EMLA. It is administered in the form of a cream and covered with a self-adhesive dressing.
  • LAT. It is administered in gel form and takes effect after 15-30 minutes.
  • Tetralidophen. It is used on children’s mucous membranes.

How is it administered?

It can be done in two ways: by catheter or with a single dose of anesthetic. Sometimes it is not possible to achieve local anesthesia, so general anesthesia will have to be used. However, it is important to remember that locoregional anesthesia requires the same precautions as when general anesthesia is administered.

Advantages

  • Less postoperative pain.
  • Avoidance of central sensitization.
  • Less use of narcotics and sedation.

Disadvantages

  • Local complications may occur.
  • The child must be sedated.
  • Local anesthetics have systemic toxicity.

Can complications arise?

Exceptionally, it could happen that the anesthetic passes into the blood or affects nerve structures. If this were to occur, effects similar to those of general anesthesia would occur, accompanied by serious complications such as arrhythmias, convulsions and drop in blood pressure. Other moderate effects may also appear such as: headache, tingling and hematomas in the area where the anesthesia has been applied.

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In exceptional cases, urinary retention and prolonged nerve damage may occur.